Video References

Interested in learning more about the theory?

This page provides links and videos that will provide the background information and science I used to better understand the theory myself.

You have to remember that the theory began after migraines were eliminated for me at the Ontario Migraine Clinic. I sat in a room with acupuncture needles stuck in me while I practiced this breathing method. I went from 15 migraines a month to ZERO and have not had a migraine in 7+ years. Was it the acupuncture or the breathing? My money is on the breathing.

Once I realized that it was actually the breathing that got rid of my migraines I set out to find out why.

During my research, I was very surprised at how much I didn't understand our most important function. Breathing should be taught at an early age & this should be supported throughout school. Check it out for yourself.

For more info on the Bohr effect, check this page

For studies regarding hypoxia & migraines click here

Pulmonary Gas Exchange Part I

Lectures in Respiratory Physiology,  John B West MD, PhD

Pulmonary Gas Exchange-Part II

Lectures in Respiratory Physiology,  John B West MD, PhD

Start at 11m 50sec.

Acid Base Balance

Lectures in Respiratory Physiology,  John B West MD, PhD

Blood Gas Transport

Lectures in Respiratory Physiology,  John B West MD, PhD

Transport of Respiratory Gases

Transport of Respiratory Gases - Partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, dissociation curves, transport of carbon dioxide, the bohr effect etc. A2 Biology Revision (AQA Spec. A)

Negative Effects of Mouth Breathing | Mark A Cruz DDS
Mark A. Cruz DDS talks about the effects of mouth breathing and how negative effects within the body may arise simply due to mouth breathing. Important functions of the body, such as alkalinity of the blood becomes compromised, affecting other organs.

Evolution Trainers - How To Breathe Properly

Ashley Selman talks to Lisa Engles about how to breathe properly. Lisa explains that many people are 'paradoxical' breathers and how to use your diaphragm to breathe correctly.

Negative Effects of Mouth Breathing | Mark A Cruz DDS
Mark A. Cruz DDS talks about the effects of mouth breathing and how negative effects within the body may arise simply due to mouth breathing. Important functions of the body, such as alkalinity of the blood becomes compromised, affecting other organs.

Mouth Breathing causes Sleep Apnea

Buteyko practitioner Patrick McKeown examines the research linking open mouth breathing to snoring and sleep apnea.

Mouth Breathing, Swaddling: Effects on Cell O2 Levels


Mouth breathing (during sleep too), lack of swaddling of babies and other lifestyle factors can destroy our health. Mouth breathing in children and adults means lack of O2, CO2 and nitric oxide in the body cells.

For over 80% of sick people and majority of modern healthy people, body oxygenation and stress-free breath holding time are lowest during early morning hours or during sleep due to negative effects of chronic overbreathing (hyperventilation) and low CO2 content in the cells and blood . Why? Many modern people breathe through the mouth during their sleep. Mouth breathing drastically decreases oxygen level in body cells. Another important factor is sleeping on one's back at night. This lifestyle factor also reduces body oxygen content about 2 times.

For infants and toddlers, there is a special factor that causes poor health and hyperventilation: lack of swaddling. Swaddled babies breathe less, sleep longer and are more quiet. They develop better and remain healthy. These are the main pros for swaddling. There are virtually no cons.

Why Breathing Through Your Nose is Important

Diaphragmatic Breathing vs. Chest Breathing in Modern People

Diaphragmatic breathing is very rare these days even in those people who practice diaphragmatic breathing exercises. Chest breathing is very common. Over 90% of modern people are chest breathers. (I am talking about automatic or unconscious breathing at rest and during sleep.) Why do we have these problems? Note that diaphragmatic breathing provides much more oxygen for the arterial blood since blood flow at the bottom of the lungs is about 7 times stronger than at the top of the lungs, as Dr. Artour Rakhimov explains .

Modern people breathe about 2 times more air every minute than the medical norm for minute ventilation at rest. Over breathing reduces body oxygen content and leads to spasms in body muscles, the diaphragm included.

In the past, diaphragmatic breathing was common since people had much higher body oxygen levels due to light and slow breathing patterns. High CO2 relaxes muscles of the human body and helps with correct posture due to excellent oxygenation of the muscles.

Abdominal breathing usually becomes the norm (24/7), when the morning CP (control pause or body oxygen index) is over 30 s. (To find the CP measure your stress-free breath holding time after usual exhalation.)

It is logical that people in the past (about 100 years ago and before that) had diaphragmatic breathing 24/7. Since relatively healthy people have about 20-25 s CP these days, most of them are chest breathers.

Breathing retraining techniques can be used to restore abdominal breathing or belly breathing. These include the Frolov breathing device, Buteyko method, Strelnikova breathing gymnastic, and hatha yoga.

Hyperventilate, Have Less O2 in the Brain, And Be Unaware about That

We can breathe 2-3 times more than the physiological norm and are not aware that our breathing is way too heavy. This causes devastating health effects. Deep and big breathing (hyperventilation) leads to ... lowered tissue oxygenation, which is the normal feature of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, chronic fatigue and many other problems.

This video discusses the main paradox of breathing: those people, who breathe little, have a lot of oxygen in the body; sick people breathe heavy, but suffer from tissue hypoxia.

Hyperventilation: Breathing Effects on Brain Oxygen and Health

Chronic hyperventilation syndrome is common in modern people. Such breathing reduces oxygen transport to brain and other body cells.

Over 90% of modern population and people with chronic diseases breathe much more than the medical norm 24/7. It is called chronic hyperventilation syndrome. You can check these medical studies here (over 40 references):

Furthermore, when people breathe 2-3 times more air than the medical norm, they are usually totally unaware that their breathing is too heavy.

What are the main physiological and biochemical effects of over-breathing on our brains? There are 3 key effects:
- reduced perfusion or blood supply for the brain cells;
- lowered oxygenation of brain tissues
- and increased excitability of the nerve cells (spontaneous and/or asynchronous firing of neurons).

These effects can cause stress, anxiety, sleeping problems, phobias, panic attacks and even mental problems. As a result, healthy breathing is crucial for good or normal mental health.

All these effects have been confirmed by hundreds of physiological research studies and are based on CO2 deficiency in the arterial blood due to hyperventilation. Dr. Buteyko devoted his life to studying chronic hyperventilation syndrome and effects of CO2 on the human organism.

Mouth Breathing vs. Nose Breathing (for Mouth Breather)


If you are a mouth breather, you need to know the following medical facts. Published-western-clinical evidence clearly proved thatmouth breathing is one of 2 immediate leading causes of mortality in the severely sick patients with chronic diseases. Early morning hours (from about 4 to 7 am) have the highest death rates due to coronary-artery spasms, anginas, strokes, asthma attacks, seizures and many other exacerbations. The relevant medical research is considered on the web page "Sleep Heavy Breathing Effect".



Certain individuals, whether children or adults, have a tendency to breathe through the mouth instead of the nose. Whether you are exercising, sleeping or going about daily life, it is preferable to do nasal breathing rather than mouth breathing. When you breathe through your mouth, your brain is tricked into thinking that carbon dioxide is escaping the body too quickly. This stimulates the production of mucous, as the body attempts to slow the breathing.

Read more:

Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems
"Children who mouth breathe typically do not sleep well, causing them to be tired during the day and possibly unable to concentrate on academics," Dr. Jefferson said. "If the child becomes frustrated in school, he or she may exhibit behavioral problems."

Nose Breathing


Breathing through the nose has many benefits. Breathing through the mouth, many negatives. There are some researchers who believe that mouth breathing and associated hyperventilation causes or exacerbates asthma, high blood pressure, heart disease, and many other medical problems. It makes some folks look dull witted or slightly unconscious.

'Mouth-breathing' gross, harmful to your health


Jefferson believes breathing though the mouth is often an overlooked root cause of many health and behavioral problems, particularly in school-age kids. ("Just think of the child," he says. "How do you think they’re doing in school? These kids are tired, they’re irritable, they can’t concentrate in school. And a lot of these kids (may be) diagnosed with ADD and hyperactivity.")

Chest Breathing | Thoracic Breathing: Effects, Tests and Solutions


Chest breathing (or thoracic breathing) is very common in modern people. More than 50% of adults have predominantly chest breathing at rest. It is even more common for people with chronic diseases, who breathe too deeply at rest, as this table shows.

Normal Respiratory Rate, Volume, Chart, ...


Normal respiratory rate in adults is 12 breaths/min. Normal breathing, as we discussed, is strictly nasal (in and out), mainly diaphragmatic (i.e., abdominal), slow (in frequency) and imperceptible (or small/shallow in its volume).

Normal Respiratory Rate - Breathing Frequency (Health, Disease, Yoga, ...)

Respiratory rate (respiration rate, breathing frequency, breathing rate, ventilation rate, pulmonary ventilation rate, and respiratory frequency) is the number of breaths that a person takes during one minute. The normal value for an adult is 10-12 breaths per minute at rest. Yoga masters breathe much slower.

Medical research suggests breathing frequency is the indicator of pulmonary problems that get progressively worse with progress of chronic health conditions, such as heart disease, asthma, COPD, diabetes, HIV-AIDS, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

You can find more facts related to respiratory rates for adults with cancer patients, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, asthma, diabetes, COPD and many other conditions on pages of

Medical textbooks suggest that the normal respiratory rate for adults at rest is only 10-12 breaths per minute. Older physiology textbooks often provide even smaller values (e.g., 8-10 breaths per minute), while more recent textbooks can give up to 15-18 breaths per minute. Ideal breathing rate is 3-4 breaths per minute as in real yoga masters.

Most modern adults breathe much faster (about 15-20 breaths per minute) than their normal respiration rate. Respiratory rates in people with chronic diseases are usually higher: often nearly 20 breaths/min or even higher. has numerous medical studies that testify that respiratory rates in terminally sick people with cancer, HIV-AIDS, cystic fibrosis and other conditions is usually over 30 breaths/min.

Another webpage with this URL: also provides details related to medical norms and values for breathing frequency in people with chronic health problems.

Normal values for respiratory rate:
- during exercise: 50-60 breaths/min
- hatha yoga pranayama: 0.5-3 breaths per minute
- firebreath (hatha yoga exercise): 100-120 breaths/min.

Normal respiration rates in children
- Newborns and infants (up to 6 months old): 30-60 breaths/min
- Infants (6 to 12 months old): 24-30 breaths/min
- Toddlers and children (1 to 5 years old): 20-30 breaths/min
- Children (6 to 12 years): 12-20 breaths/min.

Charts and graphs of breathing patterns, minute ventilation and results of the body oxygen test (Buteyko CP test) can be found on this page: and the link provided above. Also, the Amazon book "Yoga Benefits Are in Breathing Less" describes the causes of poor efficiency of modern yoga and effects of classic yoga on health and breathing..

References for Table 1 (Minute ventilation and
prevalence of CHV in patients with chronic diseases)


Sourced from

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Divisions of Cardiovascular, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

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Respiratory Function Laboratory, IRCCS, S. Maugeri Foundation, Montescano Medical Center, Pavia, Italy.

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Departnent of Cardiac Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK

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Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, University of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

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Department of Cardiac Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK.

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Divisions of Pulmonary Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, and Hermann Hospital, Houston, USA.

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Respiratory Investigation Unit, Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

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Dept of Internal Medicine and Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

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Clinica di 1Semeiotica e Metodologia Medica and Neurologia e Neuroriabilitazione, University of Ancona, and Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Scienze Endocrino-Metaboliche, University of Perugia, Italy.

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Clinica di Semeiotica e Metodologia Medica, University of Ancona, Italy.

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Clinica di Semeiotica Metodologia Medica, University of Ancona, Ospedale Regionale Torrette, Ancona 60020; and Istituto di Medicina Interna e Scienze Endocrine e Metaboliche, University of Perugia, Perugia 06100, Italy.

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Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA

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